ارزیابی آسیب پذیری آب های زیرزمینی حوزه طرقبه شاندیز استان خراسان با استفاده از تکنیک های دراستیک و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشدگروه محیط زیست، واحد بوشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بوشهر، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه محیط زیست، واحد بوشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بوشهر، ایران

3 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، واحد بوشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بوشهر، ایران

چکیده

آلودگی آب‌های زیرزمینی در حوزه طرقبه شاندیز در استان خراسان رضوی به دلیل افزایش جمعیت، توسعه صنعتی و همچنین فعالیت ­های کشاورزی یک مسئله مهم است. هدف از این تحقیق تهیة نقشه آسیب­ پذیری آب‌های زیرزمینی در این حوزه با استفاده از مدل دراستیک و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی می ­باشد. داده ­های هفت پارامتر (سطح آب زیرزمینی، شبکه تغذیه، محیط آبخوان، جنس خاک، توپوگرافی، ناحیه غیراشباع، هدایت هیدرولیکی) مدل دراستیک جمع ­آوری و با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی به نقشه تبدیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که تغییرات شاخص دراستیک در محدودة 225-68 است. که خطر آلودگی آب‌های زیرزمینی منطقه در پنج ناحیه با آسیب‌پذیری خیلی کم، کم، متوسط، زیاد و خیلی زیاد طبقه‌بندی گردید. نقشه دراستیک نشان می ­دهد که 15.9% در آسیب‌پذیری خیلی کم، 20.29% در آسیب‌پذیری کم، 26.33% در آسیب‌پذیری متوسط، 24.34% در آسیب‌پذیری زیاد و 13.14% در آسیب‌ پذیری خیلی زیاد قرار دارد. جریان آب رودخانه از شمال شرق منطقه سبب می ­شود که آب هنگام جریان به پایین‌ دست کودهای زمین‌های کشاورزی را به آب‌های زیرزمینی تخلیه و ازاین‌رو منجر به آسیب‌پذیری آب‌های زیرزمینی این منطقه شود. صحت نقشه آسیب‌ پذیری با انطباق نقشه تغییرات نیترات با نقشه شاخص دراستیک تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد که کلیه نقاطی که دارای یون نیترات بالا هستند در محدودة آلودگی خیلی زیاد قرارگرفته‌اند که این می­تواند دقت و صحت مدل را تائید نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A GIS, DRASTIC techniques for assessing groundwater vulnerability in Torghabeh –Shandiz watershed of Khorasan county

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehri Entezari 1
  • Fazel Amiri 2
  • Tayebeh Tabatabaie 3
1 1. MSc. Graduated Student, Department of Environmental, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof. Department of Environmental, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran
3 Assist. Prof. Department of Environmental, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran
چکیده [English]

The state of groundwater pollution in Torghabeh-Shandiz watershed of Khorasan County has become a major problem, particularly in respect of the increasing population, and the agricultural, industrial and commercial development. The present work attempts to interpret the groundwater vulnerability of this watershed using the DRASTIC model together with the geographic information system (GIS). The data which correspond to the seven parameters (depth to water level, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, the impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity) of the DRASTIC model were collected and converted into thematic maps with GIS. The study showed that the DRASTIC index shows lies in the range of 68 to 225 which were classified into five zones, very low, low, moderate, high, and very high-risk zone of groundwater contamination. The DRASTIC map illustrates that an area of 15.9% is a very low vulnerability, 20.29% low vulnerability, 26.33% moderate vulnerability, 24.34% high vulnerability and 13.14% very high vulnerability in the study area. The river flows from the northeast region of the watershed allows more recharge of water, which may drain the fertilizers from the surrounding agricultural lands along with it to the groundwater and hence leads to groundwater vulnerability of this region. To check the reliability of the DRASTIC index map in the field condition, groundwater samples were collected for the analysis of nitrate (NO3) which is found as one of the pollutants in groundwater resulting due to use of fertilizers during agriculture. The presence of high nitrate concentration over high to moderate risk pollution zone in the study area validated satisfactorily.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Groundwater vulnerability
  • Drastic
  • Geographic Information System (GIS)
  • Torghabeh –Shandiz

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