بررسی تاثیر تغییرات اقلیمی بر تغییرات سطح دریاچه مهارلو با استفاده از پردازش تصاویر ماهواره ای

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان

2 دانشیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان

3 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی فارس

4 استادیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان

چکیده

برای ارزیابی مدیریت منابع آب و تغییرات محیطی منطقه‌ای، پهنه‌بندی دقیق و بررسی دینامیک دریاچه‌ها امری حیاتی است. در این پژوهش، به منظور تهیه نقشه سطح دریاچه مهارلو واقع در حاشیه شهر شیراز و تعیین تغییرات آن در دوره‌های زمانی 18 ساله (1376-1394) از تصاویر ماهواره‌ای لندست در اواسط بهار استفاده شد. بدین منظور پس از انجام تصحیحات هندسی، رادیومتریک و جوی تصویرهای ماهواره‌ای، سطح آب دریاچه با استفاده از دو روش آستانه گذاری بر روی باند 5 و استفاده از شاخص آبی (NDWI) برای 18 سال بدست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که ضمن وجود نوعی نوسان در مقادیر مساحت دریاچه، در دراز مدت روند کلی کاهشی در مساحت دریاچه وجود دارد. با ارزیابی نتایج حاصله مشخص گردید که بیشترین تغییرات در خطوط ساحلی قسمت شرقی صورت گرفته است. نوسان‌های ﺳﻄﺢ آب ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات برخی از پارامترهای اﻗﻠﻴﻤـﻲ (تبخیر دی تا اردیبهشت ماه، بارش سالانه، متوسط درجه حرارت دی تا اردیبهشت ماه، متوسط درجه حرارت حداکثر دی تا اردیبهشت ماه) بررسی گردید. نتاﻳﺞ آزﻣﻮن ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻫﻤﺒﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﭘﻴﺮﺳﻮن در سطح آماری 05/0 و 01/0 درصد در ﻣﻮرد تبخیر ماه­های دی تا اردیبهشت (44/0-) بارش سالانه (77/0)، درجه حرارت متوسط دی تا اردیبهشت (28/0-)، درجه حرارت حداکثر ماه­های دی تا اردیبهشت (52/0-) است. روند افزایش و کاهش بارندگی با تغییرات سطح آب دریاچه همسان است. حداقل میزان بارش در سال‌های آبی 1387-1386 و 1388-1387 به ترتیب به میزان 147 و 192 میلی‌متر در سال بوده است که متعاقب با آن میزان سطح دریاچه در حداقل خود به ترتیب 14146 و 15095 هکتار در طی سال‌های مطالعه است. حداکثر میزان بارش در سال آبی 1384-1383 به میزان 745 میلی‌متر در سال بوده که متعاقب با آن میزان سطح دریاچه در حداکثر خود (25806 هکتار) در طی سال‌های مطالعه است. بارندگی 58 درصد تغییرپذیری در سطح دریاچه را تشریح می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of climate change on Maharlo lake level change using satellite image processing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Samiei 1
  • Reza Ghazavi 2
  • Mojtaba Pakparvar 3
  • Abas Ali Vali 4
1 PhD. Student of Watershed Management, College of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan
2 Assoc. Prof. College of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan
3 Assis. Prof. Fars Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center
4 Assis. Prof. College of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan
چکیده [English]

Study of the long term dynamic of the lake is crucial to evaluate regional water resources management and environmental changes. The main aim of this study was to evaluate and mapping the impact of climate change in the dynamic of the lake Maharlo located in the boundary of Shiraz city. Landsat satellite images during the past 18 years (1997-2016) in mid-spring were used to determine dynamic changes of the study lake (After geometric, radiometric and Atmospheric correction of satellite images, the annual lake level was extracted using a thresholding method on the band 5 and NDWI index. The results show that, a general reduction trend was observed in the lake area. Most of the changes were occurring in the eastern part. The correlation between water level changes of the lake with some of the climatic parameter changes (evaporation January to May, annual rainfall, average temperature January to May, the average maximum temperature January to May) was also investigated). According to Pearson correlation coefficient between the lake level and evaporation of the months of January to May, annual rainfall, the average temperature of January to May, maximum temperature of the months of January to May were -0.44, 0.77, -0.28, -0.52, respectively. A significant trend was observed between rainfall change (decrease and increase) and lake level. Minimum annual rainfalls were 147 and 192 mm in the years of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, respectively, which minimum lake level was observed in the same years (14146 and 15095 hectares).  The maximum rainfall was occurred in 2004-2005 (745 mm) when the maximum water surface was measured in the lake (25806 ha). According to the results, 58% of the variability of the lake could relate to rainfall change.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lake water level
  • Semi-arid and arid regions
  • Climate variables
  • Normalized Difference Water Index
  • Threshold method
  • Maharlo lake

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